Tap ch Hoc tieng Anh va Ngon ng The English-Learning and Languages Review Trang chu Homepage

 

 

B quyet thanh cong trong ky thi ngoai ng

(trnh o cao cap)

Li khuyen tong quat va cac bai luan xin bam chuot vao ay

(Sap bo sung them bai vao trang nay)

Li khuyen tong quat va cac bai luan

Muc luc Contents: Ban co the sao chup trang nay vi so lng tuy y nhng xin theo cac ieu kien ghi cuoi bai.

Tong quat

General

Ky thuat khi lam bai thi

Exam Technique

Theo UNG thi bieu a vach ra

Keep EXACTLY to your timetable

Can thc te

...the need for realism

Canh gi

Timing

Viet ve e tai ma bai thi yeu cau

Write on the subject the paper tells you...

Nhng nguyen tac chung

General principles

Kiem tra

Checking

Ch viet ieu ban BIET LA UNG

Only write what you KNOW IS RIGHT

Chuan b

Preparation

Tom tat

Summary

Kiem tra TNG loi ban thng pham phai

Check...your 'favourite' mistakes SEPARATELY

Biet cac iem yeu cua ban

Know your weak points

 

ng pham nhng loi thong thng do at ra muc tieu qua cao

Don't make ... mistakes ... by being too ambitious

Bai oc

Reading material

Cac bai luan

Compositions

Dung ngon ng n gian

Use simple language

Th muc sach ng phap

Grammar book indexes

Cac loi ban thng pham phai

Your list of 'favourite' mistakes

ng mat thi gian cho bo cuc cua bai luan

Essay construction: don't waste time on it

 

NG chep lai bai lam cua ban

Do NOT copy your work out!

Tom lc

Summing up

 

ay la mot trch oan chon loc t cuon Nghe thuat va Khoa hoc trong viec hoc Ngon ng cua Amorey Gethin va Erik V. Gunnemark, do Intellect xuat ban (a ch http://www.intellectbooks.com Cac chi tiet khac xin bam chuot vaoay. Intellect la nha xuat ban chuyen ve viec hoc ngon ng tren may vi tnh.)

"Cuon sach rat ang oc khong ch rat hu ch cho hoc vien hoc ngoai ng ma ca cho giao vien. Theo toi phan gia tr nhat cua cuon sach la chng hng dan cac b quyet thanh cong trong mot ky thi ngoai ng. Chng nay gom cac ky thuat giup ch cho hoc vien khi i thi" Trch muc iem sach cua tap ch Giang vien thang 7/1996.

Tong quat General

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S nghiet nga trong cac ky thi va nhu cau thc te

The tyranny of examinations and the need for realism

Thi c la chuyen ang ngan. Khong mot cong ong thc s van minh nao lai bat thanh vien cua no chu ng nhng th thach nh the. Ngoai anh hng tam ly s thi khong at ma ca chnh viec thi khong at. No lam suy sup long t tin va gay mot noi lo au tot cung ve kha nang ban than khi phai ng au vi tng lai. Hang trieu cuoc i con ngi c quyet nh bi viec ho co thanh cong trong cac ky thi hay khong. V thi c ong vai tro ln lao nh the trong xa hoi hien ai nen toi muon gii thieu ay vai phng phap giup hoc vien at ket qua tot hn trong cac ky thi ngoai ng.

Toi a at c nhng thanh tu het sc kha quan khi dung nhng phng phap ma toi se gii thieu sau ay e hng dan cac hoc vien d thi mon tieng Anh nh mot ngoai ng. Vai hoc vien sau khi thi khong at nhieu lan va mot so giao vien cung nh trung tam du thay ho khong con chut hy vong nao na a thanh cong khi ap dung nhng phng phap nay. Nhng phng phap nay cung at ket qua rat tot khi ap dung cho ca lp hoc. Nhng ngi s dung cac phng phap nay thi at ket qua vi t le rat cao so vi mc trung bnh (oi khi ti 95%).

ieu lam toi ac biet vui mng la li khuyen cua toi a giup ch cho nhieu hoc vien trong lp, nhng ngi ranh gii gia thanh cong va that bai. Chnh nhng hoc vien nay can nhieu s giup nhat.

Mau chot cua s thanh cong la phai thc te. Mot trong nhng ly do pho bien nhat khien ngi ta thi hong la ho at ra muc tieu qua cao. Ho nham ti s toan hao nhng lai lam hong tat ca. ieu khong may la chnh cac giao vien phai chu trach nhiem ve tnh trang nay. Ho co yeu cau hoc vien co cac cau tra li hoan chnh hoac gan nh hoan chnh, lam hoc vien mat tinh than va khong ch ra cho ho c ieu cot yeu: mot phng cach thc tien e giai quyet van e.

ieu nay co ve mau thuan vi mot nguyen tac c ban cho hau het nhng ngi hoc ngoai ng: hoc vien phai nham en s tuyet hao. Nhng cac th sinh lai phai ng au vi mot kho khan trc mat: chuan b cho ky thi va tm nhng cau tra li chnh xac cho cac cau hoi trong e thi la nhng viec khong hoan toan giong vi viec hoc ngoai ng.

Co hang ngan th sinh ngoai ng u kha nang thi o lai that bai v chuan b khong ung, s dung khong ung phng phap hoac khong co phng phap nao ca trong ky thi. Trong khi o co nhieu th sinh vi kha nang kem hn lai thanh cong v chuan b tot va lam bai thi ung phng phap.

Ban co the ngh rang toi muon noi cach hieu qua nhat e thi au la dung manh li. Nhng that s khong phai vay. ieu toi muon noi la ban co the at ket qua cao nhat neu lam viec co he thong va co ky luat. Sau ay trc tien toi se gii thieu mot so li khuyen tong quat roi sau o thao luan chi tiet cach giai quyet cac dang khac nhau cua bai thi. Cac mau bai thi toi s dung la bai thi tieng Anh nh mot ngoai ng, nhng toi tin rang phan ln cac gi y cua toi cung giup ch cac hoc vien hoc cac ngoai ng khac.

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Nhng nguyen tac chung General principles

Trang nay khong phai danh cho nhng ngi muon at iem cao trong ky thi ma khong muon co gang nhieu. Ho can t hoac chang can chut li khuyen nao. Nhng con ngi may man nay ch can biet ro loai bai thi ho se gap trong ky thi va giam khao mong i ieu g ho.

Phan ln cac th sinh trong hoan canh khac han. Ho biet la se khong the at iem cao nhat. Cau hoi quan trong nhat oi vi ho ch la: "Lieu mnh co thi au khong?". Neu ban thuoc loai th sinh nay th co nhieu ieu thc te va n gian ma ban co the lam e nang cao iem so.

Trc tien co mot nguyen tac khi i thi ma ban khong c quen:

Ban phai cho giam khao ch thay nhng ieu ban biet, ch khong bao gi la nhng ieu ban khong biet.

Th du trong ky thi co viet bai luan (nhat la cac ky thi trnh o cao), phan ln th sinh pham sai lam tai hai la co viet the nao cho hoan toan ap ng cac yeu cau cua giam khao. Ban nen thc te hn bang cach viet sao cho ung cau, du cho bai viet co the khong c hoan hao e at iem cao.

e thanh cong trong ky thi, ban can phai:

1 chuan b chu ao

2 biet ky thuat lam bai thi

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Chuan b Preparation

Trc tien can nam ro noi dung ky thi. Ban cung phai biet yeu cau cua bai thi, e tai nao, iem ng phap va t vng nao ky thi co the neu ra. Hien nhien la ban can chuan b va thc tap tra li cac loai cau hoi o.

Mot so giao vien trong i rat nhieu ban va co the bc boi khi ban xao nhang trong hoc tap. Ban can hieu rang ban than ban co trach nhiem het sc nang ne. Khong khi nao giao vien giao cho ban lam nhng viec khong lien quan en ky thi. Giao vien va hoc vien phai lam viec mot cach het sc he thong va luon chuan b san sang cho nhng kho khan co the gap phai.

Tuy nhien ban cung khong nen nham tng nh nhieu th sinh rang lam hang tram hoac hang ngan bai tap la cach chuan b ung an. Cung ng ngh rang lam 600 bai tap ngha la ban chuan b tot gap oi so vi lam 300 bai. Thng th kieu chuan b o ch gom cac hoat ong may moc, khong suy ngh.

Mi ngan bai tap cung la vo ch neu nh ban khong biet phng phap tra li cau hoi va phng phap chuan b. Neu nh ban nghi ng ieu nay th hay nh lai rang gan nh ban khong the gap lai cung mot cau hoi trong bai thi. Ban nen danh thi gian e chuan b cho cac loai cau hoi maban cha bao gi gap. Danh mot gi suy ngh can than cach tra li nam cau hoi th tot hn la lam nam mi cau ma chang suy ngh g ca. Cau hoi th sinh nen luon t hoi mnh la 'Bang cach nao?', nh o ma ho tang them long t tin giup ho co the giai quyet hau het moi kho khan. Neu ban co giao vien hng dan th nh yeu cau ho tap trung vao viec tra li cau hoi neu tren.

Viec giai quyet cac van e kho khan dan en li khuyen ma toi cho la quan trong nhat sau ay.

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Biet cac iem yeu cua ban! Know your weak points!

Ban phai hieu ro ban than. Ban phai biet yeu cau rieng cua mnh, ngha la khong can phai mat thi gian va sc lc nh nhau cho tat ca moi van e. Lam nh the la lang ph. Ban nen chon ra nhng iem ban cho la ang chu y va tap trung vao o, roi dan ban se biet c nhng iem yeu cua mnh. T o ban nen lap mot danh muc cac loi mnh thng pham phai va canh giac vi cac loi o.

Ban nen lam u moi dang bai tap ma ban se gap trong ky thi, ac biet ban phai tap viet bai luan neu nh trong ky thi co phan nay. Ban nen ghi ra can than bat c loi nao ma ban mac phai hn mot lan. em xem moi loi pham bao nhieu lan va loi ban thng pham nhat se c xep tren cung, sau o en cac loi t pham hn. V du nh tieng me e cua ban la tieng Nhat hay tieng Ba T th loi ban thng pham phai nhat co the la loi ve cach dung mao t (a, the). Neu la tieng c th loi ban thng pham phai nhat co the la ve cach dung if. Neu la tieng Phap th co the la cach dung since. Neu la tieng Tay Ban Nha hay tieng Y th ban thng quen dung ai t it khi can thiet.

ay ch la mot so loi tieu bieu cua mot so hoc vien noi cac ngon ng khac nhau. Chung co the la loi ban thng pham phai va cung co the la khong. Ban phai t phat hien ra cac loi o. Du logic cua phng phap nay het sc ro rang va n gian nhng that ang ngac nhien la rat t hoc vien biet cach to chc viec hoc va viec on tap theo cach sau:

Hay tm ra cac van e kho khan cua rieng mnh va tm cach giai quyet chung.

Nguyen tac nay co moi lien quan en mot s that quan trong khac ma ta co the tom tat thanh khau hieu sau:

Van e khong phai la nh cau tra li ma la nh van e o.

Mot th du minh hoa cho ieu tren la viec cac hoc vien noi tieng c khi hoc tieng Anh thng xuyen pham loi dung would vi if: "If I would do that, I would miss my flight", van van. Phan ln cac hoc vien nay co the tra li ung khi c hoi ve cach dung if. Ho biet phai dung if nh the nao nhng lai thng quen khi khong co ai nhac nh va c pham i pham lai cung mot loi.

Neu luon e tam en cac loi thng pham phai th chang bao lau ta se hoc c cach khac phuc chung mot cach de dang va t nhien, hoc c cach dien ta chnh xac, n gian la v ta thng xuyen suy ngh ve chung. Hoan chnh kien thc can thiet theo cach nay de dang va hieu qua hn nhieu so vi viec hoc thuoc long.

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Bai oc Reading material

oi vi nhieu ngi co le oc la cach hieu qua nhat e tang lng kien thc ngon ng, v the oc cung la mot trong nhng viec quan trong nhat can phai thc hien khi on thi. Hai cach oc khac nhau c khao sat trong nhng chng au cuon sach neu tren.

Hay xem trong cac bai thi cu co nhng loai bai viet nao va roi tm oc cac bai viet loai o. Neu ban muon oc nhieu the loai khac nhau, ngoai cac nhat bao thuoc loai nghiem tuc va co chat lng ra th mot trong nhng loai co gia tr nhat la cac tap ch phu n. ieu nay co le se lam cac nam hoc vien ngac nhien tuy nhien lai hoan toan ung, t ra la oi vi cac tap ch phu n Anh. Toi ngh rang cac quoc gia khac cung the, cac tap ch nay co mot so cac loai bai viet a dang nhat ma ban luon gap. Gan nh tat ca cac loai tap ch khac la chuyen nganh va e tai kha gii han trong chng mc nao o, v vay cung gii han trong ngon ng s dung.

D nhien trong mot tap ch phu n khong ch co cac e tai danh rieng cho phu n. Ngoai cac bai ve gia chanh, theu an va cham soc tre em cung con co cac bai ve cac van e xa hoi, thong tin ve cac nhan vat noi tieng, the thao, cac ban nhac pop, du lch, lch s, kheo tay hay lam, cac thu tieu khien v.v... Phan ln cac bai nay c viet vi t vng va phong cach pho thong. D nhien cung co cac truyen ngan va tieu thuyet lang man, nhng ban ng coi thng chung. Co the o la loai van chng ha cap xet theo tieu chuan cua Tolstoy. Chung thng gom cac kieu dien at, suy ngh va tnh cam sao rong, rap khuon. Nhng khi ban hoc mot ngon ng th ay chnh la ieu ban can. Trc tien hay hoc kieu noi va viet thong thng ma nhieu ngi s dung va khi ban a co c nen tang nay th ban co the th to ra 'oc ao' neu muon. Ban ch co the tr nen oc ao neu ban biet c cac qui c thong thng.

Noi chung viec oc cac tac pham van hoc khong phai la cach on thi tot nhat (tr phi ban se d ky thi ve van chng). Neu ban thch van chng th d nhien la ban nen oc, nhng phai hieu rang ieu o co the khong giup ban chuan b tot cho ky thi. Bao va tap ch se cung cap cho ban nhng t vng ma ban co the can en khi thi c hn la nhng t vng trong cac tac pham van hoc.

Khong nen co bat chc cac cach viet ban gap trong cac t bao thuoc loai ng an va nghiem tuc. Hay nh rang co mot khoang cach ln gia viec hieu biet t vng va ng phap khi nghe va oc vi kha nang s dung chung mot cach chnh xac. Hay chu y en ng phap, cach dung cac t ng, nhng phai ac biet can than neu ban muon bat chc phong cach viet. t ngi co the viet theo phong cach viet cua nhng t bao noi tieng mot cach thanh cong, ngay ca bang tieng me e.

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Th muc sach ng phap Grammar book indexes

Toi se khong trnh bay ay cac ac iem cua mot cuon sach ng phap co gia tr, nhng cuon ng phap ban co trong tay can phai co mot bang th muc ay u. Khi chuan b cho ky thi, ban se phai tra cu thng xuyen cac iem ng phap va cach s dung. Mot cuon sach ng phap khong co bang th muc th qua la vo dung trong trng hp nay, tr phi cac chu e c viet va sap xep theo mau t vi cac ghi chu chi tiet hng dan tham khao.

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Ky thuat khi lam bai thi - Canh gi

Examination technique - Timing

Tai mot so ni tren the gii, ac biet tai Anh, nhieu ngi cho rang thi gian lam bai thi ngan qua. Nhng ngay ca khi co nhieu thi gian, ban cung can phai canh gi that can than cho bat ky bai lam nao. Ban nen phan bo thi gian cho tng phan va theo ung thi gian a qui nh.

Qui tac au tien la ban phai hoan tat bai thi. Ban khong the nhan iem cho nhng phan ban khong lam. V du nh ban bo 25% bai thi th ban khong the at c tren 75% so iem toi a du cho ban co lam hoan toan chnh xac cac phan con lai. ieu nay giong nh bat au cuoc chay ua bang cach ch chay mot chan. Ban a mat iem ngay trc khi giam khao cham bai cua ban.

Neu theo mot thi bieu nh san, ban se thay viec hoan tat bai thi de dang hn nhieu. Mot so ngi cho rang neu c nhn ong ho la khong thc te hoac se lam cho ho thay hoi hop. Nhng chang tha hoi hop nh the ma lam c oi chut con hn la hot hoang khi thay rang khong con lam g c na v qua muon.

Khi a hut gi nhng c tiep tuc lam bai ma khong tuan thu thi gian qui nh th ban se cang luc cang hut gi varat co the ch lam c na bai hoac t hn. Tot nhat ban nen dt khoat dng ngay mot phan nao o khi ban a s dung het thi gian qui nh cho no du a lam xong hay cha. That vo ch khi len mot thi bieu ma lai khong tuan theo. Mot khi ban a hut gi th ban khong co cach nao keo lai.

Phng phap nay co hai u iem. Mot la chac chan ban a lam tat ca moi muc cua bai thi, t nhat la mot phan cua moi muc. Hai la khi b hut gi th ban se nhan ra ngay va biet rang mnh phai i nhanh hn.

Khi nao trong bai thi co bai viet t do (v du nh bai luan, hoac viet nhng cau hoan chnh theo gi y) th sau khoang thi gian danh lam bai, ban nen thu xep them vao cuoi gi mot khoang thi gian trong ang ke na trong thi bieu. Khoang thi gian nay trc het danh e ket thuc bai thi neu ban cha lam xong. Tuan thu nghiem ngat thi bieu la e am bao an toan cho ban nh a e cap tren, tc la am bao toc o lam bai cua ban la hp ly; va ngoai ra ban se co thi gian doi ra vao cuoi gi e sa cha nhng sai sot trong bai thi. Tuy nhien neu ban phai dung khoang thi gian nay e ket thuc bai viet, hay co gang ket thuc nhanh het mc co the v con ieu quan trong khac phai lam, o la kiem tra.

V canh gi rat la quan trong cho ca viec ket thuc va kiem tra bai, nen ban can thc tap trc bang cach lam vai bai thi cu (toi thieu moi loai mot bai) e chac chan thi bieu cua ban la hp ly va e quen vi viec tuan thu thi bieu o.

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Ky thuat khi lam bai thi - Kiem tra

Examination technique - Checking

Biet cach kiem tra bai lam co le la iem khac biet chu yeu gia mot hoc vien thanh cong va mot hoc vien khong thanh cong trong ky thi.

Co rat nhieu hoc vien phan nan rang kiem tra chang co ch li g, rang chang bao gi ho tm thay mot loi hay sai sot nao. Tham ch co nhieu hoc vien noi rang khi ho kiem tra bai lam la ho sa nhng cau ang ung thanh sai. Ca hai ieu nay eu co the xay ra ch v ho khong biet cach kiem tra.

oc lai bai lam (mot lan chang han) mot cach chung chung e tm xem co loi nao khong la mot viec vo ch. Neu ban tm kiem moi th cung mot luc th hoac ban se khong thay g ca hoac ban se mat i s t tin va bat au ngh rang ban lam sai het ca na bai.

Ban phai nh chnh xac mnh ang tm g. ieu nay giup ban lam viec co hieu qua va v the ban se t tin hn va khong sa cha nhng cau a ung. ay la luc dung en danh muc cac loi ban thng pham phai ma toi a e cap phan tren.

Ban nen giai quyet rieng re tng muc mot: oc lut qua bai lam va tap trung tm loi lien quan en muc o ma thoi. Nh the chac chan ban se tm ra loi o neu nh thc s ban co sai sot. Ban lai tiep tuc nh the vi cac muc con lai. Nh the neu danh muc cua ban co 7 iem, ban phai oc lut qua bai lam cua mnh 7 lan, van van.

Ly do th hai phai canh thi gian can than la phai danh thi gi cho viec kiem tra e chac chan rang ban khong mac nhng loi mnh thng pham phai; oi khi chnh nhng loi nay la nguyen nhan chnh khien ban khong thanh cong trong ky thi.

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Ky thuat khi lam bai thi - Tom tat

Examination technique - Summary

Khi lam bai thi ban can nh: th nhat phai canh thi gian lam bai, th hai la canh thi gian e kiem tra, th ba la t tin.

Yeu to t tin cung quan trong nh cac yeu to khac. Neu ban tuan theo thi bieu, ban se thay mnh lam viec co hieu qua, thay mnh sap ket thuc, thay mnh sap kiem tra bai thi; noi cach khac la ban lam chu c tnh hnh. Ket qua la bai thi cua ban co the tot hn v ban khong cam thay hoi hop, hoac t nhat la t hoi hop hn, va ban khong lam vao tam trang hoang hot luc cuoi gi.

Ba viec ban can nh khi vao phong thi la:

1 danh muc cac loi ban thng pham phai

2 canh thi gian

3 kiem tra

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Cac bai luan Compositions

[Example paper]

PAPER 2 COMPOSITION

 

2 hours

 

Write two only of the following compositions. Follow the instructions exactly.

 

1 Describe a street you know well and explain what it means to you personally. (About 350 words.)

 

2 What duties do children owe to their parents, and parents to their children? (About 350 words.)

 

3 Write a story beginning with the words: When I knocked on the door of my parents' house, it was opened by a man who said nobody by my father's name had ever lived there. (About 350 words.)

 

4 You have just returned from an expensive package holiday organised by a well-known tour operator. Many of the promises made in their brochure were unfulfilled. Write a letter of complaint asking for compensation. (About 300 words.)

 

5 [This fifth question will ask you to write about 350 words on a subject connected with one of the three books you can study (if you want to you do not have to) for this part of the examination. The books will be different each year. My advice is that you should not try to write on these book subjects unless you have a really good and experienced teacher of literature to help you. And even then, you must remember that studying these books will take time and energy away from your study of English as a language. You can always read books both before you prepare for the examination, and afterwards!]

 

Cac loi ban thng pham phai Your list of 'favourite' mistakes

Ngay khi va ngoi vao cho cua ban trong phong thi, ban hay viet ngay ra giay cac loi ban thng pham phai.

at t giay trc mat, nhn vao o thng xuyen khi lam bai e t nhac nh mnh ve cac nhc iem cua rieng ban than va ban se thay la mnh kho pham phai cac loi o. Sau ay la mot v du minh hoa cho danh muc loi ma cac hoc vien nc ngoai hoc tieng Anh co the thng pham phai:

dung Past/Present Perfect khong chnh xac

KHONG VIET He go to London hoac Do he go to London?

KHONG VIET 'do something for doing' khi ch muc ch. V du: KHONG VIET "I'm going out early for doing the shopping." (Ta viet "I'm going out early to do the shopping."). Ta khong dung V-ing sau ong t e ch muc ch, tuy nhien co the dung sau danh t, v du: This bag is for shopping.

KHONG VIET 'the nature, the life'. V du: KHONG VIET "The life is often hard." hoac "The nature is a source of inspiration to me." (Ta viet: "Life is often hard." hoac "Nature is a source of inspiration to me."). Tieng Anh khong dung mao t xac nh vi danh t khong em c.

since: KHONG VIET 'since three weeks'

KHONG VIET 'suggest somebody to do'

trat t t: KHONG VIET 'I eat seldom eggs' hoac a tree tall

if: KHONG VIET 'if I would'

KHONG VIET 'by my car'. V du: KHONG VIET "They came by their car." (Ta viet: "They came by car." hoac "They all came together in a big car."). "By car", "by air", v.v la ng gii t co chc nang nh trang t. Neu muon dung cac t nh "car" hoac "train" nh danh t bnh thng va co mao t, tnh t v.v i kem, ta phai dung gii t phu hp. ("on a camel", "in/on the last train").

KHONG VIET 'bigger as'

KHONG VIET 'a so beautiful town'

KHONG VIET three book

Khi en gan ky thi, danh muc loi neu tren co the c tom tat lai nh sau:

Past/Present

Present Simple, third person singular

Perfect Purpose

the

since

suggest

Word order

if

Transport prepositions

Comparisons

so/such

plural nouns

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NG chep lai bai lam cua ban Do NOT copy your work out

ay la ky thi ngoai ng ch khong phai ky thi ch viet, do o ng bao gi chep lai bai lam cua ban. Thi gian chep lai o nen c dung vao nhng viec cap thiet khac, chang han nh danh cho viec ra soat cac loi thng pham phai neu tren.

Nhieu th sinh lam cho ch viet cua mnh kho oc hn v ho chep lai bai khi ang voi. Hn na co ngi con chep sai i so vi ban goc. Ban hay viet that can than ngay lan au tien (va cung la lan duy nhat) sao cho giam khao co the oc c ch viet cua ban.

Hay viet bai lam cua ban cach hang tr phi co nhng qui nh khac. Nh the khi pham loi, ban co the gach bo hang o va viet phan a sa cha vao hang trong pha tren cach ro rang. ng khoanh tron hay dung ky hieu mui ten nhieu qua v chung se lam ban cung nh giam khao lan lon. ng lam cho bai cua ban tr nen roi ram do qua nhieu nhng phan them that vao. Neu can hay gach bo tron hang va viet lai hang tren.

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Theo UNG thi bieu a vach ra

Keep EXACTLY to your timetable

Gia s ban phai viet hai bai luan trong 120 phut, moi bai khoang 350 t. Tot nhat ban nen danh khoang mot phan t thi gian o e kiem tra bai vao cuoi gi. Viec kiem tra nay nhat thiet phai co. Thi bieu luc nay cua ban nh sau:

Bai luan th nhat

45 phut

Bai luan th hai

45 phut

Kiem tra

30 phut

Khi het 45 phut, dng ngay bai luan th nhat (tham ch du ban ang viet d cau) va bat au bai luan th hai. Ky luat t giac nghiem ngat trong trng hp nay la rat can thiet.

ng viet qua nhieu v nh the la lang ph thi gian. Hn na cang viet dai ban cang de pham loi. Hay dng lai khi het 45 phut ngay ca khi bai viet cha u so t yeu cau, ban co the viet them sau.

ng bao gi em tng t ban a viet trong mot ky thi v nh the la rat ph thi gi. Co mot meo nho giup ban em so t a viet. Ngay khi bat au chuan b cho ky thi, ban hay coi so lng t trung bnh ban viet trong moi 3 dong la bao nhieu. Nh the khi can biet so lng t a viet, ban ch can em xem co bao nhieu nhom 3 dong.

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Viet ve e tai ma bai thi yeu cau

Write on the subject the paper tells you to write on

Ban phai viet ve e tai ma bai thi ra. Khong c oi e tai va viet mot ieu g o khac i du t hay nhieu. Hay tuan theo phan hng dan cua bai thi.

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Ch viet ieu ban BIET LA UNG

Only write what you KNOW IS RIGHT

Ban khong the thanh cong trong ky thi khi pham qua nhieu loi du cho y tng cac cau ban muon dien at co hay en au i na. Hay nh la phai cho giam khao thay ieu ban biet ch khong phai ieu ban khong biet. Neu ban viet ung e tai va khong pham loi, toi thieu ban se u iem at, tham ch co khi at iem so rat cao. Do o khi khong biet chac chan ieu mnh muon viet co ung hay khong th ng viet, hay viet ieu g o khac i.

Khong ai ep ban phai dung t nay hay t kia trong mot bai luan do o ng buoc mnh phai lam ieu o. D nhien la ngon ng ban dung can phai phu hp vi e tai.

Ban can nh rang ay la ky thi ve ngon ng ch khong phai ve triet ly hay ve kha nang h cau sang tao. V the khi c chon e, khong nen luon luon chon e tai ma ban quan tam hay thch thu. Hay chon e tai ma ban co von t nhieu nhat.

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Kiem tra TNG loi ban thng pham phai

Check for each of your 'favourite' mistakes SEPARATELY

Vao cuoi khoang thi gian danh cho viec viet bai luan, neu ban thay rang mnh viet t qua th hay co gang viet them nhng phai ket thuc nhanh chong.

Co gang tan dung 30 phut cuoi cung e danh cho kiem tra nh a c gii thieu phan tren (Ky thuat khi lam bai thi - Kiem tra). ieu nay co the mang y ngha quyet nh cho viec ban at yeu cau trong ky thi hay khong. Ket thuc bai lam va kiem tra lai quan trong hn la viet nhng cau ket hay ho, ep e.

ng bao gi ri phong thi sm du cho ban them mot ieu thuoc hay mot ly ca phe en au i na. Luon luon co viec quan trong cho ban lam.

oi vi hoc vien ma tieng me e cua cac ban khong co mao t (nh the va a trong tieng Anh) th loi thng pham phai la bo quen mao t khi lam bai thi cac ngon ng co mao t. Tuy nhien ban ng qua ban tam ve mao t ma can phai chu y en danh t.

Khi kiem tra tng danh t, hay xem co can en mao t hay khong; neu can th o la mao t nao. Cac hoc vien ngi Trung Quoc va Nhat co the s dung ba cau hoi sau khi kiem tra tng danh t:

Danh t la so nhieu hay so t? Co can en gii t khong? Co can en mao t khong? (Cau hoi ve mao t la cau sau cung v cau nay thng tuy thuoc vao hai cau tren.)

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ng pham nhng loi thong thng do at ra muc tieu qua cao

Don't make avoidable mistakes through being too ambitious

Xin c lap lai rang li khuyen cua toi la danh cho nhng hoc vien luon lo lang la ho khong u kha nang viet tot mot bai luan trong ky thi ngoai ng.

Khi ban khong t tin th mot trong nhng ieu te hai nhat la ban lai co to ra thong minh. Gan nh chac chan ban se that bai trong ky thi ngoai ng trnh o cao cap neu ban co lam ieu ban khong u kha nang lam khi ban ngh la can phai viet mot cach cau ky, bay bm. Ban co the co an tng ve trnh o cao cua ky thi va co le trnh o cua ky thi la cao that. Tuy nhien ieu thiet yeu trong ky thi ngoai ng trnh o cao cap la ban khong c pham qua nhieu loi. Loi co the c cham che trong cac ky thi cap o thap hn, nhng khong the chap nhan cap o cao.

Trong cac ky thi ngoai ng trnh o cao cap, nhieu giam khao lung kiem nhng bai viet vi phong cach t nhien, s dung t chnh xac vi von t phong phu; ho khong thch bai viet vi cau truc n ieu: Chu t ong t Tuc t. Nhng ho cung anh gia cao nhng bai viet ung ng phap, ung chnh ta va dung ung t. Mot giam khao a noi rang cac bai viet b iem kem thng do th sinh khong u kha nang ngon ng e dien at y tng nen ho viet bang cach dch meo mo, go ep t tieng me e sang ngoai ng.

en ay ta lai tr ve nguyen tac c ban: ng cho giam khao thay nhng ieu ban khong biet. Khong nen qua cau toan khi viet bai luan. Co gang viet theo mot phong cach ma ban khong the thc hien c la mot viec lam vo ch. Cung vo ch khi ban co dung nhng t ma ban khong biet cach dung. Cung that vo ch khi ban co ap ng yeu cau cua au bai bang cach viet nhng cau sai ng phap, nhng cau phi logc va dung sai t.

Neu ban that gioi ngoai ng th co le ban u kha nang dien at mot cach hieu qua bang ngoai ng nhng g ban muon. Tuy nhien nhieu ngi khong co c trnh o nh the va that la sai lam khi co to ra la mnh tinh thong. Khi o ket qua at c ch la kieu dch tng t mot cach ky quai, nhng cau roi ram vo ngha va pham phai nhng loi ng phap ma ban khong bao gi vap phai khi viet nhng cau n gian hn.

Cac giam khao co le khong thch cau vi cau truc: Chu t ong t Tuc t. Nhng viet mot cau ung vi cau truc o con tot hn mot cau phc tap, cau ky ma lai sai. Khong giam khao nao lai xem mot phong cach viet t nhien hoac cach dung t chnh xac va phong phu la mot loi sai pham.

(oi vi the van ngh luan, mot so khuon mau cho phan viet m au mot cau hay mot oan sau ay ang e cho ban hoc tap:

This is clearly a problem of the greatest importance.

I think we must define what we mean by (democracy).

From the earliest times (the individual) has been the victim of society).

Where (road transport) is concerned...

A good thing about (the new technique) is...

The same applies to...

On the other hand...

Neu ban hoc c khoang 30 mau nh the va biet cach dung chung ieu quan trong la khong c dung chung khong ung cho ban se thay chung khong ch gay an tng het sc tot ep oi vi giam khao ma con ong gop mot so lng t ang ke vao bai lam, do o giup ban ton cong sc va thi gian tm them y va t.)

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Dung ngon ng n gian Use simple language

Mot lan na ta tr lai van e c ban : ng cho giam khao thay nhng ieu ban khong biet. Ngoai ra ng coi thng cac cau ngan cung nh ngon ng n gian. Trong cac ky thi cap o cao, ban thng c yeu cau viet bai luan ve cac nha van Anh noi tieng. Hai trong so o la Bertrand Russell va George Orwell (ca hai song vao the ky 20). Ho viet rat n gian, ro rang va cau van cua ho thng rat ngan. Hay nh rang dau cham (.) la cong cu tot nhat giup ban tranh khoi nhieu kho khan khi viet cau.

Nhieu ngon ng co kieu thanh lap cau chu yeu da tren danh t. Tieng Anh von d khong thuoc nhom nay. Tuy nhien trong vai thap ky va qua, cac tai lieu mang tnh hoc thuat vi van phong khoa hoc a co anh hng rat ln lao en cach s dung tieng Anh. ay la mot v du tieu bieu cho loai cau o trch t mot tap ch khoa hoc My: 'The fish displayed a one hundred per cent mortality response.' (Toi oan la tac gia muon noi tat ca ca eu chet.)

Hieu ung c nhng cau thanh lap chu yeu da tren danh t la kho khan hn nhieu so vi loai cau bnh thng. Can co kien thc sau rong mi co the s dung danh t trong cau mot cach ung an v cac chuan mc ngon ng cua chung rat la chat che: ban phai biet nhng ong t, tnh t, gii t nao co the dung c vi mot danh t nao o. Trong khi o cau thanh lap chu yeu da tren ong t de viet hn nhieu va ngi viet cung t co nguy c pham loi hn.

Ban hay xem v du minh hoa sau:

These cars can travel at very high speeds.

ay la mot cau n thanh lap chu yeu da tren danh t speeds. e viet cau chnh xac ta can phai nam vng:

(a) speed co the dung nh danh t em c hoac khong em c;

(b) high khong phai fast la tnh t thch hp vi danh t speed;

(c) at la gii t thch hp vi danh t speed;

(d) travel la ong t thch hp vi danh t speed - ong t go khong chnh xac trong trng hp nay.

Nhng neu ong t go la thanh phan chu yeu cua cau th ta khong can kien thc ac biet nao va ch can viet nh sau:

These cars can go very fast.

Co le ban nam vng cac van e (a)-(d) c trnh bay tren ngay ca khi ban khong phai la ngi ban ng. Tuy nhien toi hy vong ban hieu c nguyen tac toi muon trnh bay. Sau ay la mot th du phc tap hn vi nhng qui luat nhieu khe ve cach dung t vng:

Doubts might be entertained in certain quarters as to whether an alternative procedure might not, in preference, be adopted.

Cau c thanh lap chu yeu da tren cac danh t doubts, quarters, procedure va preference va o chnh la cac danh t phai dung trong trng hp nay.

Cac t entertain va adopt la cac ong t thch hp vi danh t doubts va procedure, tnh t alternative dung vi procedure, gii t in dung vi ca quarters va preference, cuoi cung as to whether dung e noi doubts va phan th hai cua cau. Trong thc te cau tren co the c dien ta mot cach n gian nh sau:

Some people might think there is a better way

Trong trng hp nay cac ong t think va is la cac t chnh.

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ng mat thi gian cho bo cuc cua bai luan

Essay construction: don't waste time on it

Hoi ong khao th co the yeu cau cac bai luan trnh o cao cap phai c viet vi dan y ro rang, y tng sau sac, bo cuc chat che va mach lac. Mac du co the ho khong oi hoi bai viet phai hay hoac oc ao, nhng han la ho se anh gia thap cac bai khong giai quyet e tai mot cach thch hp hoac c chuyen t y nay sang y khac mot cach ot ngot.

Tuy nhien viec cac giam khao anh gia cac tieu ch tren la het sc chu quan. Khong bao gi co hai giam khao nhat tr hoan toan khi cham mot bai luan da tren cac tieu ch nay.

Do o ban khong the biet trc c cac giam khao se cho iem ve bo cuc va phat trien y cua bai ra sao, nen khi on tap neu nh ban con yeu ve ng phap va t vng th khong nen va khong the mat thi gian va cong sc cho viec ren luyen bo cuc cua bai luan. Luc nay ban phai tap trung cho ng phap va t vng trc.

Ng phap va t vng la cac van e khach quan v ban co the biet ro la mnh dung ung hay sai. Hay tap trung vao lanh vc ro rang, cu the nay ch khong phai vao van e m ho la bo cuc bai luan phai chac chan. Neu bai viet khong co loi th ban co the at iem hp ly toi thieu hoac iem cao. Tuy nhien ban se khong at c iem so nh the neu ban pham phai nhng loi nang du cho bo cuc bai viet co hay en au i na.

Xin nhac lai la ban can phai thang than vi giao vien. Neu giao vien hng dan ban ve bo cuc bai nh lam sao viet phan m bai cho hay, phat trien than bai cach mach lac va viet ket luan mot cach thuyet phuc; ve cac chi tiet nh cach phan oan th ban nen hoi ro lieu nhng van e nay co giup ban vt qua ky thi hay khong; lieu ban a nam vng ng phap va t vng u e ap ng yeu cau bai thi hay cha; lieu ban ch con can bo sung them ky nang ve bo cuc bai viet hay khong.

(Toi muon noi ro la neu ban nam vng mot so cau m au thanh nha co the dung c cho nhieu e tai khac nhau trong ky thi viet th ieu nay co the tac ong tot en giam khao. Giam khao cung la nhng con ngi do o khi ma mot cau xuat sac nam cuoi mot bai viet tam thng co le chang em lai li loc g th mot cau nh the au bai rat co the lam cho ho co an tng tot ep hn ve phan bai con lai.)

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Tom lc Summing up

Loi ln nhat ma ban co the pham phai khi viet bai luan trong ky thi ngoai ng cao cap la ban e ra muc tieu qua cao. Khi ban khong at c muc tieu mong muon th o chnh la ieu may man nhat cho ban. Neu khong hau qua te nhat ma cac loi o co the gay ra la ban se mat nhieu iem hn nhieu so vi trng hp ban khong qua tham vong nh the.

Vay hay nh nguyen tac sau khi ban khong hoan toan chac chan: VIET N GIAN.

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Neu ban co cau hoi hoac thac mac nao ve viec hoc cung nh thi ngoai ng, hay viet cho bien tap vien editor. Chung toi se co gang cung cap cho ban cau tra li thoa ang nhat trong trang Hoi-ap Questions and Answers. Ten cua ban se c gi kn theo yeu cau.

Tap ch Hoc tieng Anh va Ngon ng The English-Learning and Languages Review va cac cong tac vien gi ban quyen toan bo cac noi dung in an trong tap ch. Tuy nhien ban c sao chup (so lung khong gii han) tai lieu tren, Li khuyen tong quat va cac bai luan, vi cac ieu kien sau:

  • neu ro xuat x cua tai lieu
  • khong thay oi noi dung khi cha c s ong y cua tap ch
  • khong e ra han che nao ap dung cho ngi s dung cac tai lieu sao chup
  • khong c em ban

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